Boundary Value Analysis and Equivalence Partitioning Testing

One is for valid input class i.e. selects any value from input between ranges 1 to 100. Any one value from this equivalence class should give you the same result. One test case for just above boundary values of input domains each means 2 and 101. One test case for exact boundary values of input domains each means 1 and 100. It divides the input data of software into different equivalence data classes. In the workplace, boundary values are used to provide the outer parameters when creating ergonomic designs.

definition of boundary value coverage

Condition coverage measures the conditions independently of each other. Condition coverage checks if both the outcomes(“true” or false”) of every condition have been exercised. The outcome of the decision point is only relevant for checking the conditions. In the given example, this path 1A-2C-3D-E-4G-5H covers all the statements and hence it requires only on a test case to cover all the requirements. This is also responsible for testing where lots of calculations are required for any kind of variable inputs and for using in varieties of applications. This is used mainly to analyze the testing at the partition boundaries and also to detect anomalies that may occur during testing cases.

This is ablack box test design techniqueused to calculate the effectiveness of test cases and which can be applied to all levels of testing from unit, integration, system testing and so forth. Boundary values are a set of conditions applied to a mathematical equation. In ergonomics, upper and lower boundary values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile of a selected population. After applying both boundary value and Equivalence partitioning, can we confidently say that we got all the required coverage? Boundary value and equivalence partitioning assume that the application will not allow you to enter any other characters or values.

Why Should You Care About Test Coverage?

And on the other hand, only one high priority defect may prevent acceptance criteria from being satisfied. Higher-priority defects are generally weighted more heavily as part of this metric. Sometimes many paths are impossible to exercise due to relationships of data. Branch coverage can be calculated by finding the minimum number of paths which ensure that all the edges have been covered. In the given example, there is no single path that ensures coverage of all the edges at one go.

Statement coverage is the basic coverage and hence does not guarantee 100% coverage. Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). It can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code.

  • This testing process was introduced to select boundary values that came from the boundary based on the inputs at different ends of testing values.
  • In these cases, the boundary is just the true/false value of the class.
  • If we take the value as 30.01, then we end up testing the software for two decimals where the requirement is one decimal place.
  • It is quite easy to test a small set of data in place of testing a whole lot of data sets.
  • Dead code can be found easily by manual testing or using automation tools.
  • Simform provides you with the dedicated QA team that work exclusively on your project.
  • Given a set of domain boundaries to test, we can apply the following guidelines to select test cases.

You can also use static test coverage analysis tools to identify the unused dead code from the source code. The effectiveness of static analysis, however, depends on tools, language and architecture, but it’s a good start. Boundary Value Analysis is based on testing the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions. The behavior at the edge of the equivalence partition is more likely to be incorrect than the behavior within the partition, so boundaries are an area where testing is likely to yield defects.

Before we dive deeper into test coverage and it’s techniques, let’s also discuss another wildly popular testing methodology— code coverage. Talent SolutionsManaged Team Extension Extend your tech team with skilled software engineersManaged Team Extension With the Team Extension Model, our engineers become an integral part of your team during the entire project. We carefully select each team member based on the requirements and expertise you need. We employ a dual-shift approach to help you plan capacity proactively for increased ROI and faster delivery. In electrostatics, a common problem is to find a function which describes the electric potential of a given region.

Boundary value analysis is a type of black box or specification based testing technique in which tests are performed using the boundary values. The basis of Boundary Value Analysis is testing the boundaries at partitions (Remember Equivalence Partitioning !). However, this is useable only when the partition is ordered, consisting of numeric or sequential data. The minimum and maximum values of a partition are its boundary values. It is not always easy to see the boundaries between equivalence classes; boundaries may not exist in such simple forms or make sense.

What Are the Reasons for the Bugs Occurrence?

This testing machine is in conjunction with an equivalence testing mechanism that provides valid testing scenarios when there is ordered partition and the data consists of numeric format. The percentage of boundary values that have been exercised by a test suite. This is similar to the problem with shifted boundaries for inequalities, and as with that problem, choosing two on points removes this. However, unlike inequality boundaries, equality boundaries are strictly equal, therefore choosing extremum on points is unnecessary.

definition of boundary value coverage

It checks for the input values near the boundary that have a higher chance of error. Every partition has its maximum and minimum values and these maximum and minimum values are the boundary values of a partition. In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions. A solution to a boundary value problem is a solution to the differential equation which also satisfies the boundary conditions. Percentage of boundary values that have been tested by a set of tests.

Why Equivalence & Boundary Analysis Testing

We use Agile software development with DevOps acceleration, to improve the software delivery process and encourage reliable releases that bring exceptional end-user experience. If we return to the triangle example again, we see that there are equivalence classes based on three variables. This is harder to visualise (and anything above three dimensions even more so!), but selecting the on and off points is still straightforward for this particular program. Boundary conditions are predicates that apply directly on, above, and beneath the boundaries of input equivalence classes and output equivalence classes.

definition of boundary value coverage

Boundary value analysis is another black box test design technique and it is used to find the errors at boundaries of input domain rather than finding those errors in the center of input. We already know that Black box testing involves validating the system without knowing its internal design. We have also discussed the pitfalls of Equivalence partitioning and how they can fail at partition boundaries.


If the region does not contain charge, the potential must be a solution to Laplace’s equation (a so-called harmonic function). The boundary conditions in this case are the Interface conditions for electromagnetic fields. If there is no current density in the region, it is also possible to define a magnetic scalar potential using a similar procedure. The boundary values of such a testing mechanism are identified by the values present at the extreme boundaries, i.e. minimum and maximum value. This means that if the off point is a certain distance away from the boundary, then only shifts at least as big as this distance can be detected by that off point. The three values are interpreted as representing the lengths of the sides of a triangle.

definition of boundary value coverage

A path condition is the condition that must be satisfied by the input data for that path to be executed. So these extreme ends like Start- End, Lower- Upper, Maximum-Minimum, Just Inside-Just Outside values are called boundary values and the testing is called “boundary testing”. Practically, due to time and budget considerations, it is not possible to perform exhausting testing for each set of test data, especially when there is a large pool of input combinations. So, let’s see how we can combine it with Equivalence partitioning to get a full set of test conditions. Development is more systematic nowadays and organizations seek measures of testing completeness and effectiveness to show test completion criteria.

Boundary Value Analysis with Equivalence Partitioning

The generally accepted boundary values for ergonomic designs in the workplace are the 5th and 95th percentile. Equivalence class testing and connected with its boundary value testing are not so well-known. But the funny thing is that these key types of checking are rather often fulfilled by the experts. Such a test is unconsciously executed by the testers without the special emphasis on the procedure itself.

Software Testing – Boundary Value Analysis

Over the following 10 days, some 42,000 bags failed to travel with their owners, and over 500 flights were cancelled. The world has witnessed some of the disastrous events due to the errors prevailing definition of boundary value coverage in the software. One such event, which I personally recall, is the opening of Heathrow Terminal 5, the UK in 2008. Hire Dedicated Developers Extend your team with pre-vetted, top 5% developers.

This testing process was introduced to select boundary values that came from the boundary based on the inputs at different ends of testing values. This black box testing strategy was introduced after equivalence class partitioning where the partition of classes takes place first followed by a partition at the boundaries. Intuitively, boundary-value analysis aims to select test cases to explore the boundary conditions of a program. Boundary-value analysis and input partitioning are closely related. Both of them exploit the idea that each element in an equivalence class should execute the same paths in a program.

Code coverage helps determine how much of the code is executed while the application is running, whereas test coverage is helpful in describing test cases that can be written against the requirements document. Moreover, you get to increase customer satisfaction with a refined product. You can identify gaps in requirements, test cases and defects at early stages of your product development life cycle.

This is all about that the boundary values may refer to two classes and, accordingly, the expected result may be different. Firstly, one should puzzle out the reasons for the bugs occurrence during the boundary values input. Code coverage is the measure of degree to which the software code has been executed.

Path Coverage

Aside from the boundary condition, boundary value problems are also classified according to the type of differential operator involved. For an elliptic operator, one discusses elliptic boundary value problems. For a hyperbolic operator, one discusses hyperbolic boundary value problems. These categories are further subdivided into linear and various nonlinear types.